Monthly Archives: September 2021

Expansion Bus Woes

When I first start planning the JRC-1, my main goal was to produce a simple base design with which I could experiment with more advanced features down the road. Something akin to the original IBM PC, except with a 65816. Meeting that goal meant I needed some sort of expansion bus.

The Design

Before I started any design work I ran my original plans by the folks at the 6502 forums. There are a lot of very smart people there who have experience with these things, and I trust their advice. The recommendation was that I not bring the system buses out of the slots. Instead, I should create an expansion bus behind a 6522 VIA.

After a few iterations I settled on a bus design. My bus looked very similar to the typical bus you might find on a RAM or ROM chip. It has six address lines, eight data lines, a R/W signal, a slot enable, and an I/O strobe. A pulse on the I/O strobe signals the card to perform a transaction. This design was chosen to interface to as many available peripheral chips as possible with minimal additional logic. It also fits on a single VIA, so I could test the design on COLE-1+.

The Experiment

At this point I need to mention that the deal-breaker application for any expansion bus is that I can create a video card for it. Sp. I adapted the TIVI code that I wrote for the TinyFPGA board to run on my ULX3S and hooked it up to COLE-1+. The results were….less than encouraging.

The whole setup was terribly unreliable. Sustained writes would frequently result in missed or duplicated bus transactions and thus garbled frame buffer data. Hooking up a scope did not reveal anything wrong at the signal level. The signals were very clean, and there was very little ringing or cross-talk. Manually slowing things down in code did not help at all, either.

I have spent many hours in the past week trying to fix this issue without success. My working theory is that the relatively high rise/fall times on the strobe line may be problematic. At 50 ns it might very well be causing metastability issues inside the FPGA. Given enough time I could probably make this work, but my frustration level has reached maximum.

Moving Forward

After a lot of thought I’ve come to realization that my expansion bus is turning into the kind of project-killing feature that doomed COLE-2. The irony here is that I was trying to avoid this exact issue by having expansion slots in the first place!

If I want JRC-1 to actually be finished and built, then I need to move past this. Instead of trying to come up with the perfect design on my first try, I’m just going to build what I really want, and if it is unstable, or fails outright, then I learn from that and design a better version.

And so I have decided to go with an ISA-style bus that provides access to buffered versions of the main board buses. This should work fine for at least a couple of MHz, and anecdotal evidence from folks using RC2014 and ISA backplanes suggests I may be able to hit 8 MHz without too much trouble. The only way to tell for sure is to build the dang thing and see what happens!